Special Surveillance List

Special Surveillance List (PDF) (10/24/2023)

Disclaimer: The Controlled Substances Act (CSA) as amended by the Comprehensive Methamphetamine Control Act of 1996 (MCA) provides for the publication of a Special Surveillance List by the Attorney General under 21 U.S.C. 842(a). The Special Surveillance List identifies laboratory supplies which are used in the manufacture of controlled substances or listed chemicals. The CSA defines "laboratory supply" as "a listed chemical or any chemical, substance, or item on a special surveillance list published by the Attorney General which contains chemicals, products, materials, or equipment used in the manufacture of controlled substances and listed Chemicals". The CSA provides for civil penalty of not more than $470,640 (up from $250,000 due to an inflation adjustment assessed in 2023) for the distribution of a laboratory supply to a person who uses, or attempts to use, that laboratory supply to manufacture a controlled substance or listed chemical, if that distribution was made with "reckless disregard" for illegal uses to which a laboratory supply would be put. The CSA further states that, for purposes of 21 U.S.C. 842(a)(11), "there is a rebuttable presumption of reckless disregard at trial if the Attorney General notifies a firm in writing that a laboratory supply sold by the firm, or any other person or firm, has been used by a customer of the notified firm, or distributed further by that customer, for the unlawful production of controlled substances or listed chemicals a firm distributes and 2 weeks or more after the notification the notified firm distributes a laboratory supply to the customer". For more information, see Special Surveillance List of Chemicals, Products, Materials and Equipment Used in the Manufacture of Controlled Substances and Listed Chemicals (PDF) (October 24, 2023).

List of Controlled Substances

Section 812 of the Controlled Substances Act (21 U.S.C. §801 et seq.) (CSA) lists substances which were controlled in 1970 when the CSA was enacted. Since then many substances have been added, removed, or transferred from one schedule to another. The current list of controlled substances can be found in section 1308 of the most recent issue of Title 21 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 1300 to end (21 CFR §1308) and the final rules which were published in the Federal Register subsequent to the issuance of the CFR.

These lists describe the basic or parent chemical and do not describe the salts, isomers, salts of isomers, esters, ethers, and derivatives which may be controlled substances. These are not comprehensive lists so please note that a substance need not be listed as a controlled substance to be treated as a scheduled substance for criminal prosecution. The "Other Names" column, provides some examples of alternate names for certain compounds, and in some instances provides examples of "positional isomers". If outside parties want to ensure that a compound is not considered a scheduled substance or listed chemical, they should write the DEA, Drug and Chemical Evaluation Section (DRE), Diversion Control Division, 8701 Morrissette Drive, Springfield, Virginia 22152, for an official determination.

A substance (not included on these lists) may also be regulated as a controlled substance analogue. A controlled substance analogue is a substance which is intended for human consumption, is structurally substantially similar to a schedule I or schedule II substance, is pharmacologically substantially similar to a schedule I or schedule II substance, or is represented as being similar to a schedule I or schedule II substance and is not an approved medication in the United States. See 21 U.S.C. §802(32)(A) for the definition of a controlled substance analogue and 21 U.S.C. §813 for the schedule.

Controlled Substance Analogue
2C-B 4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyphenethylamine
2C-T-7 2,5-Dimethoxy-4(n)-propylthiophenethylamine
BZP N-Benzylpiperazine
DMT Dimethyltryptamine
DOM 4-Methyl-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamine
GBL Gamma butyrolactone
GHB Gamma hydroxybutyric acid, gamma hydroxybutyrate, 4-hydroxybutanoic acid, sodium oxybate
LAAM Levo-alphacetylmethadol
LSD Lysergic acid diethylamide, lysergide
MDA 3,4-Methylenedioxyamphetamine
MDE 3,4-Methylenedioxy-N-ethylamphetamine
MDMA 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine
MPPP 1-Methyl-4-phenyl-4-propionoxypiperidine
P2P Phenyl-2-propanone, phenylacetone
PCC 1-Piperidinocyclohexanecarbonitrile
PCE N-Ethyl-1-phenylcyclohexylamine
PCH 1-Phenylcyclohexylamine
PCP 1-(1-Phenylcyclohexyl)piperidine, phencyclidine
PEPAP 1-(2-Phenylethyl)-4-phenyl-4-acetoxypiperidine
PHP 1-(1-Phenylcyclohexyl)pyrrolidine
SPA (-)-1-Dimethylamino-1,2-diphenylethane
TCP 1-[1-(2-Thienyl)cyclohexyl]piperidine
TCPy 1-[1-(2-Thienyl)cyclohexyl]pyrrolidine
THC Tetrahydrocannabinols
THG Tetrahydrogestrinone

Drugs and other substances that are considered controlled substances under the Controlled Substances Act (CSA) are divided into five schedules. An updated and complete list of the schedules is published annually in Title 21 Code of Federal Regulations (C.F.R.) §§1308.11 through 1308.15. Substances are placed in their respective schedules based on whether they have a currently accepted medical use in treatment in the United States, their relative abuse potential, and likelihood of causing dependence when abused. Some examples of the drugs in each schedule are listed below.

Schedule I Controlled Substances

Substances in this schedule have no currently accepted medical use in the United States, a lack of accepted safety for use under medical supervision, and a high potential for abuse.

Some examples of substances listed in Schedule I are: heroin, lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), marijuana (cannabis), peyote, methaqualone, and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine ("Ecstasy").

Schedule II/IIN Controlled Substances (2/2N)

Substances in this schedule have a high potential for abuse which may lead to severe psychological or physical dependence.

Examples of Schedule II narcotics include: hydromorphone (Dilaudid®), methadone (Dolophine®), meperidine (Demerol®), oxycodone (OxyContin®, Percocet®), and fentanyl (Sublimaze®, Duragesic®).  Other Schedule II narcotics include: morphine, opium, codeine, and hydrocodone.

Examples of Schedule IIN stimulants include: amphetamine (Dexedrine®, Adderall®), methamphetamine (Desoxyn®), and methylphenidate (Ritalin®).

Other Schedule II substances include: amobarbital, glutethimide, and pentobarbital.

Schedule III/IIIN Controlled Substances (3/3N)

Substances in this schedule have a potential for abuse less than substances in Schedules I or II and abuse may lead to moderate or low physical dependence or high psychological dependence.

Examples of Schedule III narcotics include: products containing not more than 90 milligrams of codeine per dosage unit (Tylenol with Codeine®), and buprenorphine (Suboxone®).

Examples of Schedule IIIN non-narcotics include: benzphetamine (Didrex®), phendimetrazine, ketamine, and anabolic steroids such as Depo®-Testosterone.

Schedule IV Controlled Substances

Substances in this schedule have a low potential for abuse relative to substances in Schedule III.

Examples of Schedule IV substances include: alprazolam (Xanax®), carisoprodol (Soma®), clonazepam (Klonopin®), clorazepate (Tranxene®), diazepam (Valium®), lorazepam (Ativan®), midazolam (Versed®), temazepam (Restoril®), and triazolam (Halcion®).

Schedule V Controlled Substances

Substances in this schedule have a low potential for abuse relative to substances listed in Schedule IV and consist primarily of preparations containing limited quantities of certain narcotics.

Examples of Schedule V substances include: cough preparations containing not more than 200 milligrams of codeine per 100 milliliters or per 100 grams (Robitussin AC®, Phenergan with Codeine®), and ezogabine.


Lists of Scheduling Actions, Controlled Substances, Regulated Chemicals (PDF) (April 2024)

This document is a general reference and not a comprehensive list. This list describes the basic or parent chemical and does not describe the salts, isomers and salts of isomers, esters, ethers and derivatives which may also be controlled substances.

Scheduling Actions Controlled Substances List I and II Regulated Chemicals
Alphabetical Order Alphabetical Order Alphabetical Order
Chronological Order Controlled Substance Code Number DEA Chemical Code Number
CSA Schedule List Number
Illicit Uses and Threshold Quantities

Exempted Lists


EO13891 Disclaimer: Guidance documents, like this document, are not binding and lack the force and effect of law, unless expressly authorized by statute or expressly incorporated into a contract, grant, or cooperative agreement. Consistent with Executive Order 13891 and the Office of Management and Budget implementing memoranda, the Department will not cite, use, or rely on any guidance document that is not accessible through the Department's guidance portal, or similar guidance portals for other Executive Branch departments and agencies, except to establish historical facts. To the extent any guidance document sets out voluntary standards (e.g., recommended practices), compliance with those standards is voluntary, and noncompliance will not result in enforcement action. Guidance documents may be rescinded or modified in the Department's complete discretion, consistent with applicable laws.